Thursday, 15 September 2016

VoIP Feature Parameter

2 Overview

LTE uses an all-IP architecture. Therefore, it supports only packet-switched (PS) services but does not support circuit-switched (CS) voice calls that are implemented in the universal terrestrial radio access network (UTRAN) and GSM/EDGE radio access network (GERAN). The evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) uses VoIP to implement voice services.

2.1 Introduction

VoIP in the LTE network refers to the setup of voice sessions over IP networks between the user equipment (UE) and the operator's IP service network.
Figure 2-1 shows an LTE and System Architecture Evolution (SAE) architecture for VoIP. For details about the architecture, see 3GPP TS 23.401.
Figure 2-1 LTE/SAE architecture
NOTE:
E-UTRAN: Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
MME: Mobility Management Entity
SGSN: Serving GPRS Support Node
UTRAN: Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network
PSS: Packet-switched Streaming Service
GERAN: GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network
HSS: Home Subscriber Server
UE: User Equipment
PCRF: Policy and Charging Rule Function
IMS: IP Multimedia Subsystem
For VoIP, the operator's IP services in the LTE network are implemented based on the IMS. The IMS uses the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and Session Description Protocol (SDP) for session control and multimedia negotiation. This facilitates implementation of IP-based multimedia services.
The codec standard used for VoIP is determined by the UE and IMS, transparent to the eNodeB. For common codec standards, see 3 Common Speech Codec Standards.
During a VoIP call setup procedure, the calling UE and called UE need to set up E-UTRAN radio access bearers (E-RABs) for voices and IMS signaling, respectively. For details, see 4 VoIP Procedure.
For details about VoIP performance evaluation criteria, see 5 VoIP Performance Evaluation Criteria.

2.2 Architecture

Table 2-1 describes the features involved in Huawei VoIP.
Table 2-1 Features involved in Huawei VoIP
Feature Category
Feature
Description
ROHC
TDLOFD-001017
RObust Header Compression (ROHC)
This feature effectively compresses the headers of VoIP data packets.
For details, see 6 VoIP ROHC.
Scheduling
TDLOFD-001015
Enhanced Scheduling
This feature optimizes the handling of VoIP priorities. For details, see 7.2 Dynamic Scheduling.
TDLOFD-001016
VoIP Semi-persistent Scheduling
This feature reduces the overhead of L1 and L2 signaling for VoIP. For details, see 7.3 Semi-persistent Scheduling.
TDLBFD-002005
DL Asynchronous HARQ
This feature is used in downlink semi-persistent scheduling for VoIP. Only adaptive hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) is supported. For details, see 7.3.4 HARQ Retransmission During DL Semi-Persistent Scheduling.
TDLBFD-002006
UL Synchronous HARQ
This feature is used in uplink semi-persistent scheduling for VoIP. Both adaptive HARQ and non-adaptive HARQ are supported. For details, see 7.3.2 HARQ Retransmission and Resource Collision Handling During UL Semi-Persistent Scheduling.
TDLOFD-001048
TTI Bundling
This feature enhances UL coverage for VoIP. For details, see 7.4 TTI bundling.
Power control
TDLBFD-002026
Power Control
This feature provides power control policies in semi-persistent scheduling for VoIP.
For details, see 8 VoIP Power Control.
Admission and congestion control
TDLBFD-002023
Admission Control
This feature provides admission control policies for VoIP.
For details, see 9.3 Admission Control.
TDLBFD-002024
Congestion Control
This feature provides congestion control policies for VoIP.
For details, see Admission and Congestion Control Feature Parameter Description.
DRX
TDLBFD-002017
DRX
This feature helps the UE reduce power consumption when using VoIP service.
For details, see 10 VoIP DRX.

3 Common Speech Codec Standards

Common speech codec standards for VoIP include the adaptive multirate (AMR) standards stipulated by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and the G.7 series standards stipulated by the International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T).

3.1 AMR

AMR is an audio data compression scheme optimized for speech codec. It is now widely used in GERAN and UTRAN. AMR is classified into adaptive multirate wideband (AMR-WB) and adaptive multirate narrowband (AMR-NB).
AMR-NB has seven speech coding rates.
They are 12.2 kbit/s, 10.2 kbit/s, 7.95 kbit/s, 7.4 kbit/s, 6.7 kbit/s, 5.9 kbit/s, and 4.75 kbit/s.
AMR-WB has nine speech coding rates.
They are 23.85 kbit/s, 23.05 kbit/s, 19.85 kbit/s, 18.25 kbit/s, 15.85 kbit/s, 14.25 kbit/s, 12.65 kbit/s, 8.85 kbit/s, and 6.6 kbit/s.
Figure 3-1 shows the VoIP traffic model under AMR.
Figure 3-1 VoIP traffic model under AMR
There are three VoIP traffic states:
  • Transient state
    Transient state is an unstable period in the early phase after a service is set up. In this state, the packet size is relatively large.
  • Talk spurts
    Talk spurts occur when the user is in conversation. In this state, data is transmitted at intervals of 20 ms, and the packet size is determined by the speech coding rate.
  • Silent period
    Silent period is a short period during which a user stops talking. In this period, a silence insertion descriptor (SID) is transmitted at intervals of 160 ms. A SID is a noise frame sent to improve user experience.

3.2 G.7 Series

The widely used G.7 series standards include G.711, G.729, and G.726.
  • G.711
    G.711, also known as pulse code modulation (PCM), is primarily used in telephony. It supports a coding rate of 64 kbit/s.
  • G.729
    G.729, known for the high voice quality and low delay, is widely used in various domains of data communications. It supports a coding rate of 8 kbit/s.
  • G.726
    G.726 supports coding rates of 16 kbit/s to 40 kbit/s. The most commonly used rate is 32 kbit/s. In actual application, voice packets are sent at intervals of 20 ms.

4 VoIP Procedure

Voice and IMS signaling (SIP/SDP) in a VoIP service use different E-RABs. The E-RAB with a QCI of 1 for voice is configured in unacknowledged mode (UM), and the E-RAB with a QCI of 5 for IMS signaling is configured in acknowledged mode (AM). Table 4-1 lists the RLC modes configured for services with different QCIs.
Table 4-1 RLC modes configured for services with different QCIs
QCI
Service Type
RLC-SAP
1
Conversational voice
UM
5
IMS signaling
AM
When a UE sets up a VoIP call, the calling and called UEs need to set up separate RRC connections for voice and separate E-RABs for IMS signaling. For details, see 4.1 VoIP Call Setup and Conversation Procedure, and VoIP Protocol Stack.
If a UE in the E-UTRAN needs to communicate with a UE in the UTRAN/GERAN, the IMS and MSC server need to transfer the call from the PS domain to the CS domain. This document does not cover this transfer process.

4.1 VoIP Call Setup and Conversation Procedure, and VoIP Protocol Stack

4.1.1 VoIP Call Setup and Conversation Procedure

Figure 4-1 shows the VoIP call setup and conversation procedure.
Figure 4-1 VoIP call setup and conversation procedure
The procedure is described as follows:
  1. The calling UE sets up an RRC connection.
  2. The MME instructs the calling UE to synchronously set up the default E-RAB and an E-RAB for IMS signaling.
  3. After the SIP Invite message is sent, the called UE is instructed to set up an RRC connection and an E-RAB for IMS signaling.
  4. The UEs negotiate information about sessions and speech codecs through IMS signaling.
  5. After the negotiation, the calling UE and the called UE set up E-RABs for data in VoIP packets.
  6. The called UE sends a ringback tone to the calling UE through IMS signaling.
  7. The called UE answers the call and the VoIP conversation begins.
  8. The scheduler in each eNodeB chooses dynamic scheduling or semi-persistent scheduling based on the scheduling policy, and performs VoIP scheduling.

4.1.2 VoIP Protocol Stack

Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) data usually uses the same E-RAB as VoIP voice streams and Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) data for transmission on the Uu interface. Figure 4-2 shows the VoIP protocol stack and traffic flows.
Figure 4-2 VoIP protocol stack and traffic flows

4.2 SRVCC Architecture Based on IMS

Single radio voice call continuity (SRVCC) is an inter-RAT handover policy for voice service. It ensures smooth handover of IMS-based VoIP service from E-UTRAN to the CS domain of UTRAN/GERAN.
For details about SRVCC, see SRVCC Feature Parameter Description.
Figure 4-3 shows the SRVCC architecture for E-UTRAN and UTRAN. For details, see 3GPP TS 23.216. The SRVCC architecture for E-UTRAN and GERAN is similar to that shown in Figure 4-3.
Figure 4-3 SRVCC architecture for E-UTRAN and UTRAN
When a UE initiates a VoIP call, the control plane for the call is anchored at the VCC AS in the IMS. When a UE moves from E-UTRAN to UTRAN/GERAN, the MME sends a handover request to the MSC and hands over the session from the E-UTRAN to UTRAN/GERAN. In this situation, the SRVCC architecture ensures conversation continuity.

5 VoIP Performance Evaluation Criteria

The VoIP performance indicators include delay, packet error loss rate, VoIP capacity, and voice quality. For details, see 5.1 Evaluation Indicators.

5.1 Evaluation Indicators

5.1.1 Delay and Packet Error Loss Rate

Table 5-1 lists the standardized QCI characteristics defined in section 6.1.7 in 3GPP TS 23.203 (Release 10). The packet delay budget (PDB) is 100 ms for both VoIP voice with a QCI of 1 and IMS signaling with a QCI of 5. That is, the delay between the UE and the P-GW is 100 ms with a confidence level of 98%.
The packet error loss rate (PELR) determines the maximum rate of service data units (SDUs) that have been processed by the sender using the Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) protocol at the data link layer but are not successfully delivered by the corresponding receiver to the upper layer. The PELR for VoIP voice with a QCI of 1 is 10-2, and that for IMS signaling with a QCI of 5 is 10-6.
Table 5-1 Standardized QCI characteristics
QCI
Resource Type
Priority
Packet Delay Budget
Packet Error Loss Rate
Example Services
1
GBR
2
100 ms
10-2
Conversational voice
2
4
150 ms
10-3
Conversational video (live streaming)
3
3
50 ms
10-3
Real-time gaming
4
5
300 ms
10-6
Non-conversational video (buffered streaming)
5
Non-GBR
1
100 ms
10-6
IMS signaling
6
6
300 ms
10-6
Video (buffered streaming); TCP-based services (www, email, chat, ftp, p2p file sharing, and progressive video)
7
7
100 ms
10-3
Voice; video (live streaming); interactive gaming
8
8
300 ms
10-6
Video (buffered streaming); TCP-based services (www, email, chat, ftp, p2p file sharing, and progressive video)
9
9

5.1.2 VoIP Capacity

3GPP TS 36.814 provides a definition of the VoIP capacity for the simulation system.
A user is regarded as satisfied if the delay of its voice packets is less than or equal to 50 ms for 98% or more of the VoIP talk spurts.
The VoIP capacity of a cell is the number of VoIP users in the cell if more than 95% of the total number of users are satisfied.

5.1.3 Voice Quality

Voice quality is the key factor of service quality in networks providing voice services.
During transmission of VoIP services, voice quality is affected by delay, jitters, and packet loss. The mean opinion score (MOS) is primarily used for evaluating voice quality.
The MOS is a common subjective evaluation standard. The MOS for voice services is categorized into five levels by ITU-T G.107. Table 5-2 shows the mapping between user satisfaction and MOSs. For the same delay and packet error loss rate, the MOS varies with the speech coding rate.
Table 5-2 Voice quality levels
MOS
Speech Transmission quality category
User satisfaction
4.34
Best
Very satisfied
4.03
High
Satisfied
3.60
Medium
Some users dissatisfied
3.10
Low
Many users dissatisfied
2.58
Poor
Nearly all users dissatisfied

6 VoIP ROHC

This chapter describes the optional feature TDLOFD-001017 RObust Header Compression (ROHC) and focuses on its application in VoIP. For details about ROHC, see ROHC Feature Parameter Description.

6.1 Overview

RObust Header Compression (ROHC) provides an efficient header compression mechanism for data packets. It is specially designed for the radio links with high bit error rates (BERs) and with a long round trip time (RTT). ROHC helps reduce header overhead, lower the packet loss rate, shorten the response time, and therefore helps improve network performance.
ROHC can be enabled or disabled by specifying the RohcSwitch parameter.

6.2 Compression Efficiency

ROHC is an extensible framework consisting of different profiles for data streams compliant with different protocols. Profiles define the compression modes for streams with different types of protocol headers, as listed in Table 6-1. VoIP uses profile 0x0001 for compressing RTP, UDP, and IP headers.
Table 6-1 Mapping between profile IDs and protocols
Profile ID
Protocol
0x0001
RTP/UDP/IP
0x0002
UDP/IP
0x0003
ESP/IP
0x0004
IP
The ROHC compression efficiency varies with the ROHC operating mode and variations in the dynamic part of a packet header at the application layer. A header can be compressed to a size as small as 1 byte, which efficiently reduces the VoIP packet size and the number of resource blocks (RBs).

7 VoIP Scheduling

This chapter describes how a Huawei scheduler ensures the QoS and capacity of VoIP services using the following features:
  • TDLOFD-001015 Enhanced Scheduling
  • TDLOFD-001016 VoIP Semi-persistent Scheduling
  • TDLBFD-002005 DL Asynchronous HARQ
  • TDLBFD-002006 UL Synchronous HARQ
  • TDLOFD-001048 TTI Bundling
For details, see Scheduling Feature Parameter Description.

7.1 Overview

LTE supports the following scheduling modes:
  • Dynamic scheduling
    The Huawei scheduler dynamically allocates time-frequency resources and transmission rates at real time. Due to outstanding flexibility and large overhead of control signaling, dynamic scheduling is used for services using occasionally transmitted large packets. For details, see 7.2 Dynamic Scheduling.
  • Semi-persistent scheduling
    The Huawei scheduler allocates time-frequency resources and transmission rates when a service connection is set up, and allows reconfiguration through RRC messages. Due to low flexibility and overhead of control signaling, semi-persistent scheduling is primarily used for services using periodically transmitted small packets. For details, see 7.3 Semi-persistent Scheduling.
Semi-persistent scheduling is recommended for VoIP. When semi-persistent scheduling is used, overloaded semi-persistent RBs can be dynamically scheduled. For details, see 7.3.5 RB Overload During Semi-persistent Scheduling.
According to service requirements, enable or disable the uplink or downlink semi-persistent scheduling by specifying SpsSchSwitch for UlSchSwitch or DlSchSwitch.

7.2 Dynamic Scheduling

VoIP uses dynamic scheduling for a UE that moves at high speeds, camps on a cell with a bandwidth of 1.4 MHz, performs hybrid services (bearer scenarios except default bearer, SIP bearer, and voice bearer, for example, video calls) and requests emergency calls.
Dynamic scheduling for VoIP requires that the delay be as short as possible. Therefore, the Huawei scheduler optimizes the handling of VoIP priorities to ensure VoIP QoS.

7.2.1 UL Dynamic Scheduling

The enhanced proportional fair (EPF) algorithm ensures that VoIP has higher scheduling priorities.
When UL dynamic scheduling uses EPF, the priority of VoIP voice with a QCI of 1 is lower than the priorities of signaling radio bearer 1 (SRB1), SRB2, and the IMS signaling with a QCI of 5, and it is higher than the priorities of other initially transmitted data.

7.2.2 DL Dynamic Scheduling

The EPF algorithm helps ensure end-to-end QoS by using scheduling priorities and rate guarantee algorithms.
When DL dynamic scheduling uses EPF, VoIP voice with a QCI of 1 is a lower priority than common control information, user-specific control information, IMS signaling with a QCI of 5, data retransmitted in hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) mode, and RLC AM state reports. However, VoIP voice is a higher priority than other initially transmitted data.

7.3 Semi-persistent Scheduling

Semi-persistent scheduling is primarily used for services using periodically transmitted small packets. It can reduce the overhead of signaling at L1/L2. Currently, Huawei schedulers use semi-persistent scheduling only for VoIP voice with a QCI of 1.
The Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) layer determines talk spurts and silent periods for VoIP. During talk spurts, semi-persistent scheduling is activated. During silent periods, semi-persistently allocated resources are released. Then, when a VoIP call transits from a silent period to talk spurts, semi-persistent scheduling is reactivated.
When enabling semi-persistent scheduling, the eNodeB notifies the UE of the semi-persistently allocated resources through the physical downlink control channel (PDCCH). During periodic scheduling, the eNodeB does not need to indicate the allocated resources through the PDCCH. The period of semi-persistent scheduling is 20 ms. The eNodeB notifies the UE of the period through an RRC message.
  • After UL semi-persistent scheduling is activated, the UE periodically sends data using the semi-persistently allocated resources. For details, see 7.3.1 UL Semi-persistent Scheduling.
  • After DL semi-persistent scheduling is activated, the eNodeB periodically sends data and the UE periodically receives data using the semi-persistently allocated resources. For details, see 7.3.3 DL Semi-persistent Scheduling.

7.3.1 UL Semi-persistent Scheduling

Before semi-persistent scheduling is activated, dynamic scheduling is used for VoIP.
After semi-persistent scheduling is activated, dynamic scheduling is used in the following scenarios to supplement semi-persistent scheduling:
  • Silent periods
  • Transmission of large packets and signaling
  • HARQ retransmissions
After determining that a VoIP service is in talk spurts, the eNodeB activates semi-persistent scheduling and determines the modulation and coding scheme (MCS) and the number of resource blocks (RBs) based on the packet size and the wideband signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR).

7.3.2 HARQ Retransmission and Resource Collision Handling During UL Semi-Persistent Scheduling

Huawei eNodeB supports automatic switching between the synchronous adaptive HARQ and synchronous non-adaptive HARQ. Operators can specify the retransmission mode by setting the AdaptHarqSwitch parameter.

Collision Handling During Retransmission

For a retransmission of semi-persistently scheduled data, the eNodeB checks:
  • Whether the retransmission collides with the physical random access channel (PRACH), initial transmission in semi-persistent scheduling mode for another UE, or transmission time interval (TTI) bundled retransmission
    If a collision occurs:
    • If UL synchronous adaptive HARQ is used, the eNodeB adjusts the number of RBs for the retransmission.
    • If UL synchronous non-adaptive HARQ is used, the eNodeB suspends the retransmission.
  • Whether the retransmission collides with the physical uplink control channel (PUCCH) transmission
    If a collision occurs, the eNodeB needs to reactivate semi-persistent scheduling.

Collision Handling During Initial Transmission

For an initial transmission of semi-persistently scheduled data for a UE, the eNodeB checks whether the transmission collides with the PUCCH transmission, PRACH transmission, and TTI bundled retransmission. If a collision occurs, the eNodeB needs to reactivate semi-persistent scheduling.

7.3.3 DL Semi-persistent Scheduling

DL data transmitted in semi-persistent scheduling mode is a lower priority than common control information, such as broadcast messages and paging messages, but is a higher priority than UE-specific control signaling and user-plane data.
After semi-persistent scheduling is activated, the eNodeB allocates MCS and RBs to a UE based on the size of VoIP packets and the UE-reported wideband channel quality indicator (CQI).
The MCS remains unchanged during talk spurts, but the initial block error rate (IBLER) still increases for some UEs due to variations in channel conditions. To maintain the IBLER for semi-persistently scheduled UEs within a certain range, the eNodeB determines whether to reactivate semi-persistent scheduling based on the IBLER value.

7.3.4 HARQ Retransmission During DL Semi-Persistent Scheduling

HARQ retransmission during DL semi-persistent scheduling is performed by using dynamic scheduling. The eNodeB supports asynchronous adaptive HARQ retransmission.
HARQ process information is not included in the semi-persistent scheduling authorization information on the PDCCH. Consequently, the retransmitted data and initially transmitted data fail to be combined because the eNodeB cannot identify the HARQ process for the retransmitted data. To solve this problem, according to 3GPP TS 36.321, the eNodeB reserves HARQ processes for semi-persistent scheduling and sends the number of reserved HARQ processes to the UE through an RRC message.

7.3.5 RB Overload During Semi-persistent Scheduling

The allocated RBs may not be able to carry an entire VoIP packet during semi-persistent scheduling.
If RB overload occurs, the RLC layer segments the packet. The Huawei scheduler performs semi-persistent scheduling on part of the packet in the current TTI and then performs dynamic scheduling on the remaining part in the next TTI.

7.4 TTI bundling

TTI bundling shortens the RTT and enhances UL coverage by transmitting the same transport block (TB) for multiple times and making full use of the combining gain provided by HARQ. For details, see Scheduling Feature Parameter Description.
According to individual needs, operators determine whether to enable TTI bundling by settingUlSchSwitch.
For VoIP services with small packets but a high demand on delay, TTI bundling reduces the number of VoIP fragments, downsizes headers, and increases the success rate of initial transmissions. TTI bundling also shortens the delay and decreases the error rate. This improves the VoIP coverage at cell edges.
In TDD mode, TTI bundling is supported only in subframe configuration 0, 1, or 6. In addition, TTI bundling cannot be used with semi-persistent scheduling.

8 VoIP Power Control

This chapter describes the basic features TDLBFD-002026 Uplink PowerControl and TDLBFD-002016 Dynamic Downlink Power Allocation. It describes the power control policy for VoIP. For details, see Power ControlFeature Parameter Description.

8.1 Overview

When VoIP uses dynamic scheduling, power control policies for the uplink and downlink scheduling can be used by referring to Power Control Feature Parameter Description.
When VoIP uses semi-persistent scheduling:

8.2 UL Power Control in Semi-persistent Scheduling

When semi-persistent scheduling is performed in the UL, the CloseLoopSpsSwitch check box under the UlPcAlgoSwitch parameter specifies whether to enable closed-loop power control for the physical uplink shared channel (PUSCH) in semi-persistent scheduling.
  • When the check box is selected, the eNodeB adjusts the transmit power on the PUSCH based on the difference between the measured IBLER value and the IBLERTarget.
    • If the measured IBLER is greater than IBLERTarget, the eNodeB sends a transmit power control (TPC) command to the UE, ordering an increase in the transmit power.
    • If the measured IBLER is less than IBLERTarget, the eNodeB sends a TPC command to the UE, ordering a decrease in the transmit power.
  • When the check box is not selected, closed-loop power control for the PUSCH in semi-persistent scheduling is not used.
The PUSCH TPC commands for multiple UEs in semi-persistent scheduling mode are sent to the UEs in downlink control information (DCI) format 3 or DCI format 3A. In this way, signaling overheads on the PDCCH are reduced, increasing the VoIP capacity.

8.3 DL Power Control in Semi-persistent Scheduling

When semi-persistent scheduling is performed in the DL, the PdschSpsPcSwitch check box under the DlPcAlgoSwitch parameter specifies whether to enable power control for the physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH) in semi-persistent scheduling.
  • If the check box is selected, the eNodeB periodically adjusts the transmit power on the PDSCH for the UEs using the quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation scheme based on the difference between the measured IBLER and IBLERTarget. This aims at meeting the requirement for IBLERTarget.
    • If the measured IBLER value is less than IBLERTarget, the transmit power decreases.
    • If the measured IBLER value is greater than IBLERTarget, the transmit power increases.
  • When the check box is not selected, power control for the PDSCH in semi-persistent scheduling is not used.

9 VoIP Admission and Congestion Control

9.1 Overview

This section describes the basic features TDLBFD-002023 Admission Control and TDLBFD-002024 Congestion Control. It describes admission and congestion control policies for VoIP from the aspects of load monitoring, admission control, and congestion control. For details, see Admission and Congestion Control Feature Parameter Description.
VoIP services are carried on VoLTE, and therefore admission and congestion control needs to be separately performed for GBR services with a QCI of 1 and non-GBR services with a QCI of 5.

9.2 Load Monitoring

Load monitoring provides the monitoring results of various resources in a cell for the eNodeB to evaluate the cell status. These results include the physical resource block (PRB) usage, QoS satisfaction rate of guaranteed bit rate (GBR) services, and resource limitation indication. Load monitoring also provides a basis and reference for admission control and congestion control.

GBR Services with a QCI of 1

Load monitoring calculates the QoS satisfaction rate of differentiation of GBR services with a QCI of 1.
  • DL QoS Satisfaction Rate Evaluation
    For VoIP services with a QCI of 1, the QoS satisfaction rate of a VoIP service is evaluated based on the proportion of the number of satisfactory VoIP services to the total number of VoIP services in a cell.
  • UL QoS Satisfaction Rate Evaluation
    For VoIP services with a QCI of 1, the QoS satisfaction rate of a VoIP service is evaluated based on the proportion of the number of satisfactory VoIP services in a VoIP logical channel group to the total number of VoIP services in a cell.

Non-GBR Services (IMS Signaling with a QCI of 5)

N/A

9.3 Admission Control

Admission control described in this document determines whether to admit GBR services (new services or handovers) based on the cell load conditions (PRB usage, QoS satisfaction rate of GBR services, and resource limitation indications) provided by load monitoring.

GBR Services with a QCI of 1

Admission control is performed based on the load decision on GBR services with a QCI of 1. For details, see Admission and Congestion Control Feature Parameter Description.

Non-GBR Services (IMS Signaling with a QCI of 5)

The eNodeB directly admits non-GBR services without evaluating the QoS satisfaction rate.
When PreemptionSwitch under the RacAlgoSwitch parameter is set to On, IMS signaling with a QCI of 5 cannot be preempted.

9.4 Congestion Control

When the cell is congested, congestion control releases the GBR services with low priorities first to make some resources available. In this way, the quality of other admitted services can be ensured.

GBR Services with a QCI of 1

CellRacThd.Qci1CongThd is used to set the congestion threshold for GBR services with a QCI of 1. For details, see Admission and Congestion Control Feature Parameter Description.

Non-GBR Services (IMS Signaling with a QCI of 5)

N/A

10 VoIP DRX

This chapter describes the basic feature TDLBFD-002017 DRX. It describes the discontinuous reception (DRX) application in VoIP. For details, see DRX and Signaling ControlFeature Parameter Description.

10.1 Overview

Typically, DRX applies to UEs running services with periodically and consecutively transmitted small packets, for example, VoIP services. With DRX, UEs enter the sleep time when data is not transmitted. As a result, DRX saves power. By default, a short DRX cycle is not configured for VoIP services.
According to individual needs, operators determine whether to enable DRX by setting DrxAlgSwitch.

10.2 DRX Application in VoIP

The eNodeB determines whether to enable DRX according to TddEnterDrxThdUl/TddEnterDrxThdDland TddExitDrxThdUl/TddExitDrxThdDl.
When DRX is enabled, the eNodeB measures the number of UEs performing VoIP services. Operators set onDurationTimer according to the number of UEs performing VoIP services.
For example, when a large number of UEs are available, set onDurationTimer to a large value to activate UEs performing VoIP services.

11 Related Features

This chapter describes the dependencies between VoIP-related features and other features and the impact of VoIP-related features.

11.1 TDLOFD-001017 RObust Header Compression (ROHC)

Prerequisite Features

None

Mutually Exclusive Features

None

Impacted Features

TDLOFD-001016 VoIP Semi-persistent Scheduling
After ROHC is enabled, sizes of compressed packets fluctuate because the radio channel quality varies and the ROHC operating mode and the dynamic part of packet headers at the application layer change according to different rules. This affects semi-persistent scheduling because dynamic scheduling may be triggered in the semi-persistent scheduling period.

11.2 TDLOFD-001015 Enhanced Scheduling

Prerequisite Features

The TDLOFD-00101502 Dynamic Scheduling feature requires the EPF algorithm for the TDLOFD-001015 Enhanced Scheduling feature.

Mutually Exclusive Features

None

Impacted Features

None

11.3 TDLOFD-001016 VoIP Semi-persistent Scheduling

Prerequisite Features

None

Mutually Exclusive Features

TDLOFD-001048 TTI Bundling
As specified in LTE TDD protocols, for a UE, semi-persistent scheduling cannot be used with TTI bundling. This exclusion can be avoided by the algorithm, which does not affect the use of the two features.

Impacted Features

  • TDLOFD-001036 RAN Sharing with Common Carrier
    VoIP has a higher priority and is sensitive to scheduling delays. Therefore, UL and DL semi-persistent scheduling does not consider the configured proportions of RBs that can be allocated to different operators.
  • TDLBFD-002026Uplink Power Control During UL semi-persistent scheduling, the MCS remains unchanged but the channel quality conditions vary. Consequently, the IBLER may not converge to a target value. To solve this problem, closed-loop power control can be enabled for the PUSCH.
  • HARQ process information is not included in the PDCCH authorization information for semi-persistent scheduling. Consequently, the retransmitted data and initially transmitted data fail to be combined because the eNodeB cannot identify the HARQ process for the retransmitted data. To solve this problem, according to 3GPP TS 36.321, the eNodeB reserves HARQ processes for semi-persistent scheduling and sends the number of reserved HARQ processes to the UE through an RRC message.

11.4 TDLBFD-002005 DL Asynchronous HARQ

Prerequisite Features

None

Mutually Exclusive Features

None

Impacted Features

TDLOFD-001016 VoIP Semi-persistent Scheduling
HARQ process information is not included in the semi-persistent scheduling authorization information on the PDCCH. Consequently, the retransmitted data and initially transmitted data fail to be combined because the eNodeB cannot identify the HARQ process for the retransmitted data. To solve this problem, according to 3GPP TS 36.321, the eNodeB reserves HARQ processes for semi-persistent scheduling and sends the number of reserved HARQ processes to the UE through an RRC message.

11.5 TDLBFD-002006 UL Synchronous HARQ

Prerequisite Features

None

Mutually Exclusive Features

None

Impacted Features

None

11.6 TDLBFD-002026 Uplink Power Control and TDLBFD-002016 Dynamic Downlink Power Allocation

Prerequisite Features

TDLOFD-001016 VoIP Semi-persistent Scheduling
It is recommended that the TDLBFD-002026Uplink Power Control feature be enabled when UL semi-persistent scheduling is enabled.

Mutually Exclusive Features

None

Impacted Features

None

11.7 TDLBFD-002023 Admission Control

Prerequisite Features

None

Mutually Exclusive Features

None

Impacted Features

None

11.8 TDLBFD-002024 Congestion Control

Prerequisite Features

None

Mutually Exclusive Features

None

Impacted Features

None

11.9 TDLBFD-002017 Discontinuous Reception (DRX)

Prerequisite Features

None

Mutually Exclusive Features

None

Impacted Features

None

11.10 TDLOFD-001048 TTI Bundling

Prerequisite Features

None

Mutually Exclusive Features

TDLOFD-001016 VoIP Semi-persistent Scheduling
According to LTE TDD protocols, TDLOFD-001016 VoIP Semi-persistent Scheduling cannot be used with TDLOFD-001048 TTI Bundling.

Impacted Features

None

12 Network Impact

This chapter describes the impact of the VoIP-related features on the network.

12.1 TDLOFD-001017 RObust Header Compression (ROHC)

12.1.1 System Capacity

When ROHC is used, the variation in the sizes of compressed VoIP packets affects semi-persistent scheduling. If the sizes vary greatly, the allocated RBs may be insufficient or redundant for semi-persistent scheduling. Either case affects VoIP capacity and cell throughput.
  • If the allocated RBs are insufficient, dynamic scheduling is triggered temporarily. This causes a waste of PDCCH resources and RBs and prolongs scheduling delays due to VoIP packet segmentation.
  • If the allocated RBs are redundant, some RBs are wasted, and the cell throughput in hybrid-service scenarios decreases.

12.1.2 Network Performance

When ROHC is used, UL coverage on cell edges improves because IP headers are effectively compressed and VoIP packets are downsized.

12.2 TDLOFD-001015 Enhanced Scheduling

12.2.1 System Capacity

VoIP packets are small-sized. When semi-persistent scheduling is not enabled, VoIP capacity is restricted by PDCCH resources.

12.3 TDLOFD-001016 VoIP Semi-persistent Scheduling

12.3.1 System Capacity

After semi-persistent scheduling is enabled, PDCCH resources do not hinder VoIP capacity because PDCCH resources are consumed only when semi-persistent scheduling is initially activated or reactivated, or when semi-persistent scheduling resources are released. Therefore, enabling semi-persistent scheduling can increase VoIP capacity.
During semi-persistent scheduling, the MCS cannot exceed 15. This restriction may increase the number of RBs allocated to semi-persistently scheduled UEs near the cell center. In hybrid-service scenarios (where VoIP UEs and other UEs coexist in a cell), the increase in the number of RBs allocated to VoIP UEs will cause a decrease in the number of RBs available to other UEs, and consequently the cell throughput will decrease.

12.4 TDLBFD-002005 DL Asynchronous HARQ

12.4.1 System Capacity

DL asynchronous HARQ uses the incremental redundancy (IR) algorithm. This improves DL throughput and shortens DL transmission delay.

12.5 TDLBFD-002006 UL Synchronous HARQ

12.5.1 System Capacity

UL synchronous HARQ increases UL throughput and shortens UL transmission delay for UEs.

12.6 TDLBFD-002026 Uplink Power Control and TDLBFD-002016 Dynamic Downlink Power Allocation

12.6.1 System Capacity

Power control in semi-persistent scheduling ensures that the IBLER value of the UEs in semi-persistent scheduling converge to the IBLER target value. This improves the MOSs for UEs performing VoIP.

12.7 TDLBFD-002023 Admission Control and TDLBFD-002024 Congestion Control

12.7.1 System Capacity

Admission and congestion control affects MOSs for UEs performing VoIP and VoIP capacity.

12.8 TDLBFD-002017 Discontinuous Reception (DRX)

12.8.1 System Capacity

When DRX is enabled for UEs, VoIP service delays are prolonged due to the introduction of sleep time. Inappropriate DRX parameter settings affect the VoIP capacity.

12.9 TDLOFD-001048 TTI Bundling

12.9.2 Network Performance

When TTI bundling is used, UL coverage on cell edge also improves because VoIP fragments are reduced and HARQ gains are increased.

13 Engineering Guidelines for VoIP

This chapter describes engineering guidelines for VoIP. Only engineering guidelines for TDLOFD-001016 VoIP Semi-persistent Scheduling are described in this document. For details about engineering guidelines for other VoIP-related features, see the relevant feature parameter description. The detailed information is as follows:

13.1 When to Use VoIP

It is recommended that VoIP be enabled when IMS server is deployed and UEs support VoIP.
In this situation, VoIP provides basic voice services.

13.3 Planning

RF Planning

None

Network Planning

An IMS and UEs supporting voice services and VoIP services need to be deployed to support VoIP.
If the E-UTRAN cannot provide continuous coverage and it requires the UTRAN/GERAN to provide continuous voice services, inter-RAT neighboring cells must be configured and voice service handover switches must be set according to the UTRAN/GERAN voice service policies.

Hardware Planning

None

13.4 Deployment

13.4.1 Requirements

Operating Environment

UEs must support VoIP, and the EPC must support IMS.

Transmission Networking

N/A

License

If VoIP is enabled for the network and the network QoS needs to be ensured, the operator needs to purchase and activate the following license:
Table 13-1 License control item to be activated for VoIP
Feature ID
Feature Name
License Control Item
NE
Sales Unit
TDLOFD-001015
Enhanced Scheduling
Enhanced scheduling (TDD)
eNodeB
per RRC Connected User

13.4.2 Data Preparation

Required Data

None

Scenario-specific Data

Different QCIs require different RLC modes. The eNodeB supports adaptive configuration based on QCIs. The following table describes the parameters that must be set to modify a standardized QCI.
The MO corresponding to the following table is STANDARDQCI (standard QCI).
Parameter Name
Parameter ID
Data Source
Setting Notes
QoS Class Indication
Network plan (negotiation not required)
Retain the default setting.
RLC PDCP parameter group ID
Network plan (negotiation not required)
Retain the default setting.
The MO corresponding to the following table is RLCPDCPPARAGROUP (RLCPDCP parameter group).
Parameter Name
Parameter ID
Data Source
Setting Notes
RLC mode (RLC-UM or RLC-AM mode)
Network plan (negotiation not required)
Retain the default setting.

13.4.5 Initial Configuration

Using the CME to Perform Batch Configuration for Newly Deployed eNodeBs

Enter the values of the parameters listed in Table 13-2 in a summary data file, which also contains other data for the new eNodeBs to be deployed. Then, import the summary data file into the Configuration Management Express (CME) for batch configuration. For detailed instructions, see section "Creating eNodeBs in Batches" in the initial configuration guide for the eNodeB.
The summary data file may be a scenario-specific file provided by the CME or a customized file, depending on the following conditions:
  • The MOs in the following table are contained in a scenario-specific summary data file. In this situation, set the parameters in the MOs, and then verify and save the file.
  • Some MOs in the following table are not contained in a scenario-specific summary data file. In this situation, customize a summary data file to include the MOs before you can set the parameters.
Table 13-2 Parameters related to RLC mode configuration
MO
Sheet in the Summary Data File
Parameter Group
StandardQci
StandardQci
Qci/RlcPdcpParaGroupId
RlcPdcpParaGroup
RlcPdcpParaGroup
RlcPdcpParaGroupId/RlcMode

Using the CME to Perform Batch Configuration for Existing eNodeBs

Batch reconfiguration using the CME is the recommended method to activate a feature on existing eNodeBs. This method reconfigures all data, except neighbor relationships, for multiple eNodeBs in a single procedure. The procedure is as follows:
  1. Choose CME > Advanced > Customize Summary Data File from the main menu of an M2000 client, or choose Advanced > Customize Summary Data File from the main menu of a CME client, to customize a summary data file for batch reconfiguration.
    NOTE:
    For context-sensitive help on a current task in the client, press F1.
  2. Choose CME > LTE Application > Export Data >Export Base Station Bulk Configuration Data from the main menu of the M2000 client, or choose LTE Application > Export Data >Export Base Station Bulk Configuration Data from the main menu of the CME client, to export the eNodeB data stored on the CME into the customized summary data file.
  3. In the summary data file, set the parameters in the MOs listed in "Using the CME to Perform Batch Configuration for Newly Deployed eNodeBs" and close the file.
  4. Choose CME > LTE Application > Import Data > Import Base Station Bulk Configuration Data from the main menu of the M2000 client, or choose LTE Application> Import Data > Import Base Station Bulk Configuration Data from the main menu of the CME client, to import the summary data file into the CME.
  5. Choose CME > Planned Area > Export Incremental Scripts from the main menu of the M2000 client, or choose Area Management > Planned Area > Export Incremental Scripts from the main menu of the CME client, to export and activate the incremental scripts.

Using the CME to Perform Single Configuration

On the CME, set the parameters listed in the "Data Preparation" section for a single eNodeB. The procedure is as follows:
  1. In the planned data area, click Base Station in the upper left corner of the configuration window.
  2. In area 1 shown in Figure 13-1, select the eNodeB to which the MOs belong.
    Figure 13-1 MO search and configuration window
  3. On the Search tab page in area 2, enter an MO name, for example, CELL.
  4. In area 3, double-click the MO in the Object Name column. All parameters in this MO are displayed in area 4.
  5. Set the parameters in area 4 or 5.
  6. Choose CME > Planned Area > Export Incremental Scripts (M2000 client mode), or choose Area Management > Planned Area > Export Incremental Scripts (CME client mode), to export and activate the incremental scripts.

Using MML Commands

Run the MOD STANDARDQCI and MOD RLCPDCPPARAGROUP commands to configure RLC modes for VoIP services with QCIs of 5 and 1.

13.4.6 Activation Observation

The eNodeB can configure RLC modes based on QCIs. To check whether the RLC mode for VoIP voice with a QCI of 1 is UM and that for IMS signaling with a QCI of 5 is AM, perform the following steps:
  1. Enable a UE to access a cell, triggering the setup of bearers with QCIs of 1 and 5. Check the QCIs in the dedicated bearer request message using a drive test tool or by starting an S1 tracing task on the M2000 client. Ensure that the QCIs are correct.
    Figure 13-2 S1 tracing result
    Figure 13-3 QCI 1 in the dedicated bearer request message
    Figure 13-4 QCI 5 in the dedicated bearer request message
  2. Check the Uu tracing result. If the RLC mode for QCI 1 is UM and that for QCI 5 is AM, the configurations are correct.
    Figure 13-5 Uu tracing result
    Figure 13-6 UM for QCI 1
    Figure 13-7 AM for QCI 5

13.4.8 Deactivation

Using the CME to Perform Batch Configuration

N/A

Using the CME to Perform Single Configuration

N/A

Using MML Commands

N/A

13.4.9 MML Command Examples

NOTE:
The parameter settings in the following commands are used for reference only. Set the parameters based on network requirements.
//To set the RLC mode for the VoIP bearer with a QCI of 5 to AM and set the RLC mode for the VoIP bearer with a QCI of 1 to AM, run the following commands:
MOD STANDARDQCI: Qci=QCI5, RlcPdcpParaGroupId=4;
MOD STANDARDQCI: Qci=QCI1, RlcPdcpParaGroupId=0;
MOD RLCPDCPPARAGROUP: RlcPdcpParaGroupId=4, RlcMode=RlcMode_AM;
MOD RLCPDCPPARAGROUP: RlcPdcpParaGroupId=0, RlcMode=RlcMode_UM;

13.5 Performance Monitoring

You can use the counters listed in the following table to monitor the E-RAB setup success rate, call drop rate, and traffic volume.
Table 13-3 VoIP-related counters
Performance Category
Performance Focus
Function Subset Name
Counter Name
Counter Description
Accessibility
E-RAB setup success rate
Measurement related to E-RAB establish
L.E-RAB.AttEst.QCI.1 and L.E-RAB.AttEst.QCI.5
These counters are measured when the eNodeB receives the E-RAB SETUP REQUEST or INITIAL CONTEXT SETUP REQUEST message from the MME. If either of these request messages requires multiple E-RAB setup attempts at the same time, the corresponding counter is incremented according to the QCI of each service.
L.E-RAB.SuccEst.QCI.1 and L.E-RAB.SuccEst.QCI.5
These counters are measured when the eNodeB sends the E-RAB SETUP RESPONSE or INITIAL CONTEXT SETUP RESPONSE message to the MME. If either of these request messages contains multiple successful E-RAB setups at the same time, the corresponding counter is incremented according to the QCI of each service.
E-RAB setup failure cause
Measurement related to E-RAB establish failure
L.E-RAB.FailEst.NoReply
This counter measures the number of E-RAB setup failures due to no response from the UE in a cell.
L.E-RAB.FailEst.MME
This counter measures the number of E-RAB setup failures due to faults in the EPC.
L.E-RAB.FailEst.TNL
This counter measures the number of E-RAB setup failures due to faults at the transport layer.
L.E-RAB.FailEst.RNL
This counter measures the number of E-RAB setup failures due to faults at the radio network layer.
L.E-RAB.FailEst.NoRadioRes
This counter measures the number of E-RAB setup failures due to insufficient radio resources.
L.E-RAB.FailEst.SecurModeFail
This counter measures the number of E-RAB setup failures due to security mode configuration failures.
Maintainability
Call drop rate
Measurement related to E-RAB release
L.E-RAB.AbnormRel.QCI.1 and L.E-RAB.AbnormRel.QCI.5
These counters measure the number of abnormal E-RAB releases for services with QCIs of 1 and 5 in a cell.
L.E-RAB.NormRel.QCI.1 and L.E-RAB.NormRel.QCI.5
These counters measure the number of normal E-RAB releases for services with QCIs of 1 and 5 in a cell.
L.E-RAB.NormRel.HOOut.QCI.1
This counter measures the number of normal E-RAB releases for outgoing handovers of services with a QCI of 1 in the source cell, which are caused by successful E-RAB setups for incoming handovers in the target cell.
L.E-RAB.AbnormRel.HOOut.QCI.1
This counter measures the number of abnormal E-RAB releases for outgoing handovers of services with a QCI of 1 in the source cell, which are caused by failed E-RAB setups for incoming handovers in the target cell.
Traffic volume and quality
Traffic volume
Measurement related to Thruput
L.Thrp.bits.UL.QCI.1
This counter measures the payloads of uplink PDCP SDUs of services with a QCI of 1 in a cell.
L.Thrp.bits.DL.QCI.1
This counter measures the payloads of downlink PDCP SDUs of services with a QCI of 1 in a cell.
L.Thrp.bits.UL.QCI.1.Max
This counter measures the maximum payload of uplink PDCP SDUs of a service with a QCI of 1 in a cell within 1s.
L.Thrp.bits.DL.QCI.1.Max
This counter measures the maximum payload of downlink PDCP SDUs of a service with a QCI of 1 in a cell within 1s.
L.Thrp.Time.DL.QCI.1
This counter provides the total duration for which data is sent over downlink data radio bearers (DRBs) in a cell within 1s. This counter is incremented by 1000 ms when data is sent over downlink DRBs.
L.Thrp.Time.UL.QCI.1
This counter provides the total duration for which data is received over uplink DRBs in a cell within 1s. This counter is incremented by 1000 ms when data is received over uplink DRBs.
Duration
Measurement related to Thruput
L.E-RAB.SessionTime.QCI1
This counter provides the total duration for which uplink or downlink PDCP SDUs of a service with a QCI of 1 are transmitted within 1s. This counter is incremented by 1s when an uplink or downlink PDCP SDU is transmitted.
Downlink PDCP packet loss rate
Measurement related to Thruput
L.PDCP.Tx.Disc.Trf.SDU.QCI.1
This counter measures the number of downlink traffic SDUs discarded by the PDCP layer for services with a QCI of 1 in a cell. This counter is incremented by 1 when the PDCP layer discards a downlink traffic SDU.
L.PDCP.Tx.TotRev.Trf.SDU.QCI.1
This counter measures the total number of transmitted downlink traffic PDCP SDUs for DRB services with a QCI of 1 in a cell within 1s.

13.7 Troubleshooting

VoIP Call Setup Failure

  1. According to the S1 tracing result of the eNodeB on the M2000, check whether bearers for VoIP services with a QCI of 5 and bearers for VoIP services with a QCI of 1 are set up. If these bearer are set up, perform 2. If these bearer are not set up, perform 3.
  2. Contact Huawei technical support and determine the faulty NE.
  3. Check whether the eNodeB is faulty. If the eNodeB is faulty, contact eNodeB technical support personnel and identify the fault. If the eNodeB is running properly, perform 2.

VoIP Call Problems (One-way Audio and Poor Voice Quality)

  1. Trace the throughput of UEs making VoIP calls on the M2000 and check whether the throughput of the bearers with a QCI of 1 is the same as the theoretical throughput at the IP layer. The theoretical throughput at the IP layer compliant with the ITU-T G.711 A speech codec standards is 80 kbit/s.
    • If the traced UL throughput of bearers with a QCI of 1 is much smaller than the theoretical throughput, perform 2.
    • If the traced DL throughput of bearers with a QCI of 1 is much smaller than the theoretical throughput, perform 3.
  2. If the UE or eNodeB is faulty, contact the UE or eNodeB technical support personnel and identify the fault.
  3. If there is only one UE performing VoIP services in a cell, view the receive traffic over the IP paths for the eNodeB on the M2000 and check whether the traffic is less than the theoretical throughput at the IP layer. If yes, the rate for sending packets from the upper layer to the eNodeB is low. Certain NEs may be faulty. In this situation, contact Huawei technical support and identify the faulty NE. If no, contact Huawei eNodeB technical support personnel.

14 Engineering Guidelines for TDLOFD-001016 VoIP Semi-persistent Scheduling

14.1 When to Use TDLOFD-001016 VoIP Semi-persistent Scheduling

TDLOFD-001016 VoIP Semi-persistent Scheduling is an enhanced feature for VolP. Compared with dynamic scheduling, semi-persistent scheduling reduces PDCCH overhead and improves VoIP capacity. It is recommended that this feature be enabled for reducing PDCCH resources and improve VoIP capacity.

14.4 Deployment

14.4.1 Requirements

Operating Environment

UEs must support semi-persistent scheduling and VoIP, and the EPC must support IMS.

Transmission Networking

N/A

License

The operator has purchased and activated the license for the feature listed in the following table.
Feature ID
Feature Name
License Control Item
NE
Sales Unit
TDLOFD-001016
VoIP Semi-persistent Scheduling
VoIP semi-persistent scheduling
eNodeB
per RRC Connected User

14.4.2 Data Preparation

This section describes the data that you need to collect for setting parameters. Required data is data that you must collect for all scenarios. Collect scenario-specific data when necessary for a specific feature deployment scenario. Collect both required data and scenario-specific data based on requirements.
There are three types of data sources:
  • Network plan (negotiation not required): parameter values planned and set by the operator
  • Network plan (negotiation required): parameter values planned by the operator and negotiated with the EPC or peer transmission equipment
  • User-defined: parameter values set by users

Required Data

Parameter Name
Parameter ID
Data Source
Setting Notes
Local cell ID
Network plan (negotiation not required)
This parameter specifies the local ID of a cell and is configured in the Cell MO. Set this parameter based on the network plan.

Scenario-specific Data

UL semi-persistent scheduling is configured in the CellAlgoSwitch MO.
Parameter Name
Parameter ID
Data Source
Setting Notes
Uplink schedule switch
Network plan (negotiation not required)
The SpsSchSwitch parameter for UlSchSwitch specifies whether to enable UL semi-persistent scheduling. If this parameter is set to On, UL semi-persistent scheduling is enabled.
The recommended value for this parameter is On.
DL semi-persistent scheduling is configured in the CellAlgoSwitch MO.
Parameter Name
Parameter ID
Data Source
Setting Notes
DL schedule switch
Network plan (negotiation not required)
The SpsSchSwitch parameter for DlSchSwitch specifies whether DL semi-persistent scheduling is enabled. The recommended value of this parameter is On.

14.4.5 Initial Configuration

Using the CME to Perform Batch Configuration for Newly Deployed eNodeBs

Enter the values of the parameters listed in Table 14-1 in a summary data file, which also contains other data for the new eNodeBs to be deployed. Then, import the summary data file into the Configuration Management Express (CME) for batch configuration. For detailed instructions, see section "Creating eNodeBs in Batches" in the initial configuration guide for the eNodeB.
The summary data file may be a scenario-specific file provided by the CME or a customized file, depending on the following conditions:
  • The MOs in the following table are contained in a scenario-specific summary data file. In this situation, set the parameters in the MOs, and then verify and save the file.
  • Some MOs in the following table are not contained in a scenario-specific summary data file. In this situation, customize a summary data file to include the MOs before you can set the parameters.
Table 14-1 Parameters related to semi-persistent scheduling
MO
Sheet in the Summary Data File
Parameter Group
CELLALGOSWITCH
CELLALGOSWITCH
LocalCellID/Uplink schedule switch/DL schedule switch

Using the CME to Perform Batch Configuration for Existing eNodeBs

Batch reconfiguration using the CME is the recommended method to activate a feature on existing eNodeBs. This method reconfigures all data, except neighbor relationships, for multiple eNodeBs in a single procedure. The procedure is as follows:
  1. Choose CME > Advanced > Customize Summary Data File from the main menu of an M2000 client, or choose Advanced > Customize Summary Data File from the main menu of a CME client, to customize a summary data file for batch reconfiguration.
    NOTE:
    For context-sensitive help on a current task in the client, press F1.
  2. Choose CME > LTE Application > Export Data >Export Base Station Bulk Configuration Data from the main menu of the M2000 client, or choose LTE Application > Export Data >Export Base Station Bulk Configuration Data from the main menu of the CME client, to export the eNodeB data stored on the CME into the customized summary data file.
  3. In the summary data file, set the parameters in the MOs listed in "Using the CME to Perform Batch Configuration for Newly Deployed eNodeBs" and close the file.
  4. Choose CME > LTE Application > Import Data > Import Base Station Bulk Configuration Data from the main menu of the M2000 client, or choose LTE Application> Import Data > Import Base Station Bulk Configuration Data from the main menu of the CME client, to import the summary data file into the CME.
  5. Choose CME > Planned Area > Export Incremental Scripts from the main menu of the M2000 client, or choose Area Management > Planned Area > Export Incremental Scripts from the main menu of the CME client, to export and activate the incremental scripts.

Using the CME to Perform Single Configuration

On the CME, set the parameters listed in the "Data Preparation" section for a single eNodeB. The procedure is as follows:
  1. In the planned data area, click Base Station in the upper left corner of the configuration window.
  2. In area 1 shown in Figure 14-1, select the eNodeB to which the MOs belong.
    Figure 14-1 MO search and configuration window
  3. On the Search tab page in area 2, enter an MO name, for example, CELL.
  4. In area 3, double-click the MO in the Object Name column. All parameters in this MO are displayed in area 4.
  5. Set the parameters in area 4 or 5.
  6. Choose CME > Planned Area > Export Incremental Scripts (M2000 client mode), or choose Area Management > Planned Area > Export Incremental Scripts (CME client mode), to export and activate the incremental scripts.

Using MML Commands

  • UL Semi-persistent Scheduling
    Run the MOD CELLALGOSWITCH command to enable UL semi-persistent scheduling.
  • DL Semi-persistent Scheduling
    Run the MOD CELLALGOSWITCH command to enable DL semi-persistent scheduling.

14.4.6 Activation Observation

To verify semi-persistent scheduling for VoIP, perform the following steps:
  1. On the M2000, choose Performance > Measurement Management.
  2. Click Function subset in the Organization Style area.
  3. Choose eNodeB > Measurement related to Algorithm > Measurement related to Cell Algorithmfrom the navigation tree.
  4. As shown in Figure 14-2, select the measurement period and L.Sps.UL.SchNum and L.Sps.DL.SchNum counters on the Settings tab page. Click Apply to activate the measurement task.
    Figure 14-2 Monitoring semi-persistent scheduling
  5. Make a UE to camp on the target cell and process only VoIP services.
  6. On the M2000 client, choose Performance > Query Result.
  7. Click New Query. Then, select the counters to be queried and click Query.
    • The L.Sps.UL.SchNum counter provides the number of times that UL semi-persistent scheduling is performed in a cell.
    • The L.Sps.DL.SchNum provides the number of times that downlink semi-persistent scheduling is performed in a cell.
    An example of the query result is shown in Figure 14-3. If the value of the L.Sps.UL.SchNum counter is not zero, UL semi-persistent scheduling is enabled. If the value of the L.Sps.DL.SchNum counter is not zero, DL semi-persistent scheduling is enabled.
    Figure 14-3 Example of query result

14.4.8 Deactivation

Using the CME to Perform Batch Configuration

Batch reconfiguration using the CME is the recommended method to deactivate a feature on eNodeBs. This method reconfigures all data, except neighbor relationships, for multiple eNodeBs in a single procedure. The procedure for feature deactivation is similar to that for feature activation described in Using the CME to Perform Batch Configuration for Existing eNodeBs. In the procedure, modify parameters according to the following table.
Table 14-2 Parameters related to semi-persistent scheduling
MO
Sheet in the Summary Data File
Parameter Group
Setting Notes
CELLALGOSWITCH
eNodeB Cell
DlSchSwitch
DlSchSwitch=SpsSchSwitch-0
CELLALGOSWITCH
eNodeB Cell
UlSchSwitch
UlSchSwitch=SpsSchSwitch-0

Using the CME to Perform Single Configuration

On the CME, set parameters according to Table 14-2. For detailed instructions, see Using the CME to Perform Single Configuration for feature deactivation.

Using MML Commands

Run the MOD CELLALGOSWITCH command to deactivate UL and DL semi-persistent scheduling.

14.4.9 MML Command Examples

NOTE:
The parameter settings in the following commands are used for reference only. Set the parameters based on network requirements.
//To activate semi-persistent scheduling, run the following commands:
MOD CELLALGOSWITCH:UlSchSwitch=SpsSchSwitch-1;
MOD CELLALGOSWITCH:DlSchSwitch=SpsSchSwitch-1;
//To deactivate semi-persistent scheduling, run the following commands:
MOD CELLALGOSWITCH:UlSchSwitch=SpsSchSwitch-0;
MOD CELLALGOSWITCH: DlSchSwitch=SpsSchSwitch-0;

14.5 Performance Monitoring

You can use the counters listed in 13.5 Performance Monitoring to monitor the impact of semi-persistent scheduling on VoIP capacity.
In addition, you can use the extended counters to monitor the number of times that UL or DL semi-persistent scheduling is performed in a cell and the number of times that transmission error occurs during UL or DL semi-persistent scheduling in a cell.
Table 14-3 Counters related to semi-persistent scheduling
Counter
Description
Number of times that UL semi-persistent scheduling is performed in a cell
(L.Sps.UL.SchNum)
This counter is incremented by 1 when UL semi-persistent scheduling is performed in a cell.
Number of failed UL semi-persistent scheduling transmissions in a cell
(L.Sps.UL.ErrNum)
This counter is incremented by 1 when UL semi-persistent scheduling fails to be performed in a cell.
Number of times that DL semi-persistent scheduling is performed in a cell
(L.Sps.DL.SchNum)
This counter is incremented by 1 when DL semi-persistent scheduling is performed in a cell.
Number of failed DL semi-persistent scheduling transmissions in a cell
(L.Sps.DL.ErrNum)
This counter is incremented by 1 when DL semi-persistent scheduling fails to be performed in a cell.

15 Parameters

Table 15-1 Parameter description
MO
Parameter ID
MML Command
Feature ID
Feature Name
Description
PdcpRohcPara
RohcSwitch
MOD PDCPROHCPARA
LST PDCPROHCPARA
LOFD-001017 / TDLOFD-001017
RObust Header Compression (ROHC)
Meaning: Indicates whether to enable ROHC. Set this parameter to ON if the eNodeB is expected to support VoIP or video services.
GUI Value Range: OFF(Off), ON(On)
Unit: None
Actual Value Range: OFF, ON
Default Value: OFF(Off)
CellAlgoSwitch
UlSchSwitch
MOD CELLALGOSWITCH
LST CELLALGOSWITCH
LBFD-002025 / TDLBFD-002025
LOFD-001015 / TDLOFD-001015
LOFD-001048 / TDLOFD-001048
LOFD-001016 / TDLOFD-001016
LOFD-001067
Basic Scheduling
Enhanced Scheduling
TTI Bundling
VoIP Semi-persistent Scheduling / VoIP Semi-persistent Scheduling
800M Self-interference Cancellation
Meaning: Indicates the switches related to uplink (UL) scheduling in the cell. The switches are used to enable or disable specific UL scheduling functions. SpsSchSwitch: Indicates whether to enable or disable semi-persistent scheduling during talk spurts of VoIP services. If this switch is turned on, semi-persistent scheduling is applied. If this switch is turned off, dynamic scheduling is applied. SinrAdjustSwitch: Indicates whether to adjust the measured SINR based on ACK/NACK messages in a UL HARQ process. PreAllocationSwitch: Indicates whether to enable or disable preallocation, which shortens end-to-end service delays when the UL load is light. Preallocation reduces the probability of UEs entering DRX and therefore shortens the service time of the UEs. UlVmimoSwitch: Indicates whether to enable or disable UL MU-MIMO. If UL MU-MIMO is enabled, the eNodeB selects UEs for pairing according to pairing rules. Then, the pair of UEs transmits data using the same frequency-time resources, increasing system throughput and spectral efficiency. TtiBundlingSwitch: Indicates whether to enable or disable TTI bundling. If TTI bundling is enabled, more transmission opportunities are available to UEs within the delay budget for VoIP services on the air interface, thereby improving uplink coverage. ImIcSwitch: Indicates whether to enable or disable intermodulation (IM) component elimination for UEs. When data is transmitted in both UL and DL, two IM components are generated symmetrically beside the Direct Current (DC) subcarrier on the DL receive channel due to interference from UL radio signals. If this switch is turned on, IM component elimination is performed on UEs. If this switch is turned off, IM component elimination is not performed on UEs. This switch applies only to FDD cells working in band 20. SmartPreAllocationSwitch: Indicates whether to enable uplink smart preallocation when preallocation is enabled (by turning on PreAllocationSwitch). If both PreAllocationSwitch and SmartPreAllocationSwitch are set to On, and SmartPreAllocationDuration is set to a value greater than 0, uplink smart preallocation is enabled. Otherwise, uplink smart preallocation is disabled. PuschDtxSwitch: Indicates whether the eNodeB uses the physical uplink shared channel (PUSCH) discontinuous transmission (DTX) detection result during uplink (UL) scheduling. When this switch is turned on, the parameter applies to only cells established on an LBBPd working in FDD mode. If this switch is turned on, the eNodeB determines whether to perform adaptive retransmission during UL scheduling based on the PUSCH DTX detection result, and also adjusts the CCE aggregation level of the physical downlink control channel (PDCCH) carrying downlink control information (DCI) format 0 based on the result. If this switch is turned off, the eNodeB does not use the PUSCH DTX detection result during UL scheduling. UlIblerAdjustSwitch: Indicates whether to enable uplink IBLER adjustment algorithm. When this switch is turned on, it Changes the IBLER restraining goal for upgrading the turnover rate of cell edge. UlEnhancedFssSwitch:Indicates whether to enable the uplink load-based frequency selection enhancement.This switch is valid only in FDD mode.
GUI Value Range: SpsSchSwitch(SpsSchSwitch), SinrAdjustSwitch(SinrAdjustSwitch), PreAllocationSwitch(PreAllocationSwitch), UlVmimoSwitch(UlVmimoSwitch), TtiBundlingSwitch(TtiBundlingSwitch), ImIcSwitch(ImIcSwitch), SmartPreAllocationSwitch(SmartPreAllocationSwitch), PuschDtxSwitch(PuschDtxSwitch), UlIblerAdjustSwitch(UlIblerAdjustSwitch), UlEnhancedFssSwitch(UlEnhancedFssSwitch)
Unit: None
Actual Value Range: SpsSchSwitch, SinrAdjustSwitch, PreAllocationSwitch, UlVmimoSwitch, TtiBundlingSwitch, ImIcSwitch, SmartPreAllocationSwitch, PuschDtxSwitch, UlIblerAdjustSwitch, UlEnhancedFssSwitch
Default Value: SpsSchSwitch:Off, SinrAdjustSwitch:On, PreAllocationSwitch:On, UlVmimoSwitch:Off, TtiBundlingSwitch:Off, ImIcSwitch:Off, SmartPreAllocationSwitch:Off, PuschDtxSwitch:Off, UlIblerAdjustSwitch:Off, UlEnhancedFssSwitch:Off
CellAlgoSwitch
DlSchSwitch
MOD CELLALGOSWITCH
LST CELLALGOSWITCH
LBFD-002025 / TDLBFD-002025
LOFD-001015 / TDLOFD-001015
Basic Scheduling
Enhanced Scheduling
Meaning: Indicates the switches related to DL scheduling in the cell. FreqSelSwitch: Indicates whether to enable frequency selective scheduling. When this switch is turned on, data is transmitted on the frequency band in good signal quality. ServiceDiffSwitch: Indicates the switch used to enable or disable service differentiation. If the switch is turned on, service differentiation is applied. If the switch is turned off, service differentiation is not applied. This parameter will be removed in later versions. In this version, the setting of this parameter is still synchronized between the M2000 and the eNodeB, but it is no longer used internally. Therefore, avoid using this parameter. SpsSchSwitch: Indicates whether to enable semi-persistent scheduling during talk spurts of VoIP services. If the switch is turned on, semi-persistent scheduling is enabled during talk spurts of VoIP services. If the switch is turned off, semi-persistent scheduling is disabled during talk spurts of VoIP services. MBSFNShutDownSwitch: Indicates the switch used to enable or disable Multimedia Broadcast Single Frequency Network (MBSFN) subframe shutdown. If the switch is turned on, MBSFN subframe shutdown is applied. If the switch is turned off, MBSFN subframe shutdown is not applied. This switch is valid only when symbol-based power amplifier (PA) shutdown is enabled. If MBSFNShutDownSwitch is turned on, the switch for the mapping from SIBs to SI messages becomes invalid. The latter can be specified by the SiMapSwitch parameter in the CellSiMap MO. If MBSFNShutDownSwitch is turned off, the switch for the mapping from SIBs to SI messages becomes valid. MBSFN subframe shutdown applies only to single-mode eNodeBs. NonGbrBundlingSwitch: Indicates the switch used to enable or disable DL non-GBR packet bundling. If this switch is turned on, delay of non-GBR services can be controlled in non-congestion scenarios. If this switch is turned off, delay of non-GBR services cannot be controlled.
GUI Value Range: FreqSelSwitch(FreqSelSwitch), ServiceDiffSwitch(ServiceDiffSwitch), SpsSchSwitch(SpsSchSwitch), MBSFNShutDownSwitch(MBSFNShutDownSwitch), NonGbrBundlingSwitch(NonGbrBundlingSwitch)
Unit: None
Actual Value Range: FreqSelSwitch, ServiceDiffSwitch, SpsSchSwitch, MBSFNShutDownSwitch, NonGbrBundlingSwitch
Default Value: FreqSelSwitch:Off, ServiceDiffSwitch:Off, SpsSchSwitch:Off, MBSFNShutDownSwitch:Off, NonGbrBundlingSwitch:Off
CellUlschAlgo
AdaptHarqSwitch
MOD CELLULSCHALGO
LST CELLULSCHALGO
LBFD-002006 / TDLBFD-002006
UL Synchronous HARQ
Meaning: Indicates the switch that is used to control whether to enable or disable UL adaptive HARQ. If this switch is set to ADAPTIVE_HARQ_SW_OFF, UL data is retransmitted by non-adaptive synchronous HARQ. If this switch is set to ADAPTIVE_HARQ_SW_ON, UL data is retransmitted by adaptive synchronous HARQ. If this switch is set to ADAPTIVE_HARQ_SW_SEMION, adaptive HARQ is triggered when a UL grant is delivered to an HARQ process that is previously suspended due to reasons such as resource collision, activation of a measurement gap, and PDCCH congestion. Setting this parameter to ADAPTIVE_HARQ_SW_ON helps reduce resource consumption due to retransmission, increase the cell throughput, and prevent retransmission conflicts. This, on the other hand, will increase signaling overhead and therefore consume more PDCCH resources.
GUI Value Range: ADAPTIVE_HARQ_SW_ON(On), ADAPTIVE_HARQ_SW_OFF(Off), ADAPTIVE_HARQ_SW_SEMI_ON(SemiOn)
Unit: None
Actual Value Range: ADAPTIVE_HARQ_SW_ON, ADAPTIVE_HARQ_SW_OFF, ADAPTIVE_HARQ_SW_SEMI_ON
Default Value: ADAPTIVE_HARQ_SW_SEMI_ON(SemiOn)
CellAlgoSwitch
UlPcAlgoSwitch
MOD CELLALGOSWITCH
LST CELLALGOSWITCH
LBFD-002009 / TDLBFD-002009
LBFD-002026 / TDLBFD-002026
Broadcast of system information
Uplink Power Control
Meaning: Indicates the switches used to enable or disable power control for PUSCH and PUCCH. CloseLoopSpsSwitch: If this switch is turned off, closed-loop power control is not performed for PUSCH in semi-persistent scheduling mode. If this switch is turned on, TPC commands are adjusted based on correctness of the initially received data packet to decrease the IBLER. InnerLoopPuschSwitch: If this switch is turned off, inner-loop power control is not performed for PUSCH in dynamic scheduling mode. If this switch is turned on, inner-loop power control is performed for PUSCH in dynamic scheduling mode. PhSinrTarUpdateSwitch is the switch used to enable or disable PH-based SINR target updates in dynamic scheduling mode. This switch will be removed in later versions. In this version, the setting of this switch is still synchronized between the M2000 and the eNodeB, but it is no longer used internally. Therefore, avoid using this switch. This function is incorporated into inner-loop power control for PUSCH in dynamic scheduling mode. Therefore, to enable this function, set InnerLoopPuschSwitch to On. InnerLoopPucchSwitch: If this switch is turned off, inner-loop power control is not performed for PUCCH. If this switch is turned on, inner-loop power control is performed for PUCCH. OiSinrTarUpdateSwitch: This switch will be removed in later versions. In this version, the setting of this switch is still synchronized between the M2000 and the eNodeB, but it is no longer used internally. Therefore, avoid using this switch. This function is incorporated into inner-loop power control for PUSCH in dynamic scheduling mode. Therefore, to enable this function, set InnerLoopPuschSwitch to On. PowerSavingSwitch: This switch will be removed in later versions. In this version, the setting of this switch is still synchronized between the M2000 and the eNodeB, but it is no longer used internally. Therefore, avoid using this switch. CloseLoopOptPUSCHSwitch: If this switch is turned off, closed-loop power control is not optimized for PUSCH in dynamic scheduling mode.If this switch is turned on, closed-loop power control is optimized for PUSCH in dynamic scheduling mode.
GUI Value Range: CloseLoopSpsSwitch, InnerLoopPuschSwitch, PhSinrTarUpdateSwitch, InnerLoopPucchSwitch, OiSinrTarUpdateSwitch, PowerSavingSwitch, CloseLoopOptPUSCHSwitch(CloseLoopOptPUSCHSwitch)
Unit: None
Actual Value Range: CloseLoopSpsSwitch, InnerLoopPuschSwitch, PhSinrTarUpdateSwitch, InnerLoopPucchSwitch, OiSinrTarUpdateSwitch, PowerSavingSwitch, CloseLoopOptPUSCHSwitch
Default Value: CloseLoopSpsSwitch:Off, InnerLoopPuschSwitch:On, PhSinrTarUpdateSwitch:Off, InnerLoopPucchSwitch:On, OiSinrTarUpdateSwitch:Off, PowerSavingSwitch:Off, CloseLoopOptPUSCHSwitch:Off
CellAlgoSwitch
DlPcAlgoSwitch
MOD CELLALGOSWITCH
LST CELLALGOSWITCH
LBFD-002003 / TDLBFD-002003
LBFD-002009 / TDLBFD-002009
LBFD-002016 / TDLBFD-002016
Physical Channel Management
Broadcast of system information
Dynamic Downlink Power Allocation
Meaning: Indicates the switches used to enable or disable power control for PDSCH, PDCCH, and PHICH. PdschSpsPcSwitch: Indicates the switch for power control during semi-persistent scheduling on the PDSCH. If the switch is turned off, power is allocated evenly during semi-persistent scheduling on the PDSCH. If the switch is turned on, power control is applied during semi-persistent scheduling on the PDSCH, ensuring communication quality (indicated by IBLER) of VoIP services in the QPSK modulation scheme. PhichInnerLoopPcSwitch: Indicates the switch for PHICH inner-loop power control. If the switch is turned off, only the initial transmit power for the PHICH is set. If the switch is turned on, the eNodeB controls the physical channel transmit power to enable the receive SINR to converge to the target SINR. PdcchPcSwitch: Indicates the switch for PDCCH power control. If the switch is turned off, power is allocated evenly to PDCCH. If the switch is turned on, power allocated to PDCCH is adjusted dynamically. EDlMaxTXPwrSwitch: Indicates the switch for enhanced maximum TX power of the cell. If this switch is turned off, the maximum TX power of the cell is determined by the reference signal (RS) power and the scaling factor indexes Pa and Pb. If this switch is turned on, the maximum TX power of the cell can be increased to improve the RB usage in the cell. This switch has no impact on the TDD 20M or 10M cell.
GUI Value Range: PdschSpsPcSwitch, PhichInnerLoopPcSwitch, PdcchPcSwitch, EDlMaxTXPwrSwitch
Unit: None
Actual Value Range: PdschSpsPcSwitch, PhichInnerLoopPcSwitch, PdcchPcSwitch, EDlMaxTXPwrSwitch
Default Value: PdschSpsPcSwitch:Off, PhichInnerLoopPcSwitch:Off, PdcchPcSwitch:On, EDlMaxTXPwrSwitch:Off
CellAlgoSwitch
RacAlgoSwitch
MOD CELLALGOSWITCH
LST CELLALGOSWITCH
LBFD-001001 / TDLBFD-001001
LBFD-002023 / TDLBFD-002023
LBFD-002024 / TDLBFD-002024
LOFD-00102901 / TDLOFD-00102901
3GPP R8 Specifications
Admission Control
Congestion Control
Radio/transport Resource Pre-emption
Meaning: Indicates the switches used to enable or disable the admission and load control algorithms. DlSwitch: Indicates the switch used to enable or disable the algorithm of downlink admission control based on the satisfaction rate. If this switch is turned on, the algorithm is enabled. If this switch is turned off, the algorithm is disabled. During the calculation of the QoS satisfaction rate of services with different QCIs, the satisfaction estimation method used dedicatedly for VoIP services is implemented on services with the QCI of 1. If a service with the QCI of 1 is not a VoIP service, the satisfaction rate calculated using this method is lower than the actual value, which affects the admission of GBR services. Therefore, if not all the services with the QCI of 1 are VoIP services, it is recommended that this switch be turned off. UlSwitch: Indicates the switch used to enable or disable the algorithm of uplink admission control based on the satisfaction rate. If this switch is turned on, the algorithm is enabled. If this switch is turned off, the algorithm is disabled. During the calculation of the QoS satisfaction rate of services with different QCIs, the satisfaction estimation method used dedicatedly for VoIP services is implemented on services with the QCI of 1. If a service with the QCI of 1 is not a VoIP service, the satisfaction rate calculated using this method is lower than the actual value, which affects the admission of GBR services. Therefore, if not all the services with the QCI of 1 are VoIP services, it is recommended that this switch be turned off. DlPredictSwitch: Indicates the switch used to enable or disable the algorithm of downlink admission control based on prediction. If this switch is turned on, the algorithm is enabled. If this switch is turned off, the algorithm is disabled. This parameter will be removed in later versions. In this version, the setting of this parameter is still synchronized between the M2000 and the eNodeB, but it is no longer used internally. Therefore, avoid using this parameter. UlPredictSwitch: Indicates the switch used to enable or disable the algorithm of uplink admission control based on prediction. If this switch is turned on, the algorithm is enabled. If this switch is turned off, the algorithm is disabled. This parameter will be removed in later versions. In this version, the setting of this parameter is still synchronized between the M2000 and the eNodeB, but it is no longer used internally. Therefore, avoid using this parameter. GbrUsageSwitch: Indicates the switch used to enable or disable the check on the number of PRBs used by GBR services. If this switch is turned on, the number of PRBs used by existing GBR services is checked before a new GBR service can be admitted. If this switch is turned off, the number of PRBs used by existing GBR services is not checked during admission evaluation of the GBR services. This parameter will be removed in later versions. In this version, the setting of this parameter is still synchronized between the M2000 and the eNodeB, but it is no longer used internally. Therefore, avoid using this parameter. DlLdcSwitch: Indicates the switch used to control whether to implement load control in the downlink of a cell. If this switch is turned on, the system checks for congestion in the downlink of the cell. If the downlink is congested, load control is performed. If this switch is turned off, the system does not check for congestion in the downlink of the cell and the congestion cannot be relieved. During the calculation of the QoS satisfaction rate of services with different QCIs, the satisfaction estimation method used dedicatedly for VoIP services is implemented on services with the QCI of 1. If a service with the QCI of 1 is not a VoIP service, the satisfaction rate calculated using this method is lower than the actual value, which affects the cell load control. Therefore, if not all the services with the QCI of 1 are VoIP services, it is recommended that this switch be turned off. UlLdcSwitch: Indicates the switch used to control whether to implement load control in the uplink of a cell. If this switch is turned on, the system checks for congestion in the uplink of the cell. If the uplink is congested, load control is performed. If this switch is turned off, the system does not check for congestion in the uplink of the cell and the congestion cannot be relieved. During the calculation of the QoS satisfaction rate of services with different QCIs, the satisfaction estimation method used dedicatedly for VoIP services is implemented on services with the QCI of 1. If a service with the QCI of 1 is not a VoIP service, the satisfaction rate calculated using this method is lower than the actual value, which affects the cell load control. Therefore, if not all the services with the QCI of 1 are VoIP services, it is recommended that this switch be turned off. RelDrbSwitch: Indicates the switch used to control whether low-priority services can be released in the case of congestion. If this switch is turned on, low-priority services can be released. If this switch is turned off, low-priority services cannot be released. This parameter will be removed in later versions. In this version, the setting of this parameter is still synchronized between the M2000 and the eNodeB, but it is no longer used internally. Therefore, avoid using this parameter. PreemptionSwitch: Indicates the switch used to enable or disable the preemption control algorithm. If this switch is turned on, preemption can be used when the admission of high-priority services fails. If this switch is turned off, only emergency calls can be admitted to the system when resources are insufficient.
GUI Value Range: DlSwitch(dlCacSwitch), UlSwitch(ulCacSwitch), DlPredictSwitch(dlCacPredictSwitch), UlPredictSwitch(ulCacPredictSwitch), GbrUsageSwitch(GbrUsedPRbCheckSwitch), DlLdcSwitch(dlLdcSwitch), UlLdcSwitch(ulLdcSwitch), RelDrbSwitch(LdcDrbRelSwitch), PreemptionSwitch(PreemptionSwitch)
Unit: None
Actual Value Range: DlSwitch, UlSwitch, DlPredictSwitch, UlPredictSwitch, GbrUsageSwitch, DlLdcSwitch, UlLdcSwitch, RelDrbSwitch, PreemptionSwitch
Default Value: dlCacSwitch:Off, ulCacSwitch:Off, dlCacPredictSwitch:Off, ulCacPredictSwitch:Off, GbrUsedPRbCheckSwitch:Off, dlLdcSwitch:Off, ulLdcSwitch:Off, LdcDrbRelSwitch:Off, PreemptionSwitch:Off
Drx
DrxAlgSwitch
MOD DRX
LST DRX
LBFD-002017 / TDLBFD-002017
DRX
Meaning: Indicates the DRX switch.
GUI Value Range: OFF(Off), ON(On)
Unit: None
Actual Value Range: OFF, ON
Default Value: OFF(Off)
CellDrxPara
TddEnterDrxThdUl
MOD CELLDRXPARA
LST CELLDRXPARA
TDLBFD-002017
DRX
Meaning: Indicates the uplink traffic volume threshold for UEs to enter DRX in the cell that operates in TDD mode. This threshold is used in the DRX algorithm. It is expressed as a proportion of the transmission time intervals (TTIs) with uplink data transmission to the total TTIs. If the traffic volume at a UE is equal to or lower than this threshold, the eNodeB decides that the UE should retain its DRX state or enter DRX.
GUI Value Range: 0~1999
Unit: per mill
Actual Value Range: 0~1999
Default Value: 300
CellDrxPara
TddEnterDrxThdDl
MOD CELLDRXPARA
LST CELLDRXPARA
TDLBFD-002017
DRX
Meaning: Indicates the downlink traffic volume threshold for UEs to enter DRX in the cell that operates in TDD mode. This threshold is used in the DRX algorithm. It is expressed as a proportion of the transmission time intervals (TTIs) with downlink data transmission to the total TTIs. If the traffic volume at a UE is equal to or lower than this threshold, the eNodeB decides that the UE should retain its DRX state or enter DRX.
GUI Value Range: 0~1999
Unit: per mill
Actual Value Range: 0~1999
Default Value: 300
CellDrxPara
TddExitDrxThdUl
MOD CELLDRXPARA
LST CELLDRXPARA
TDLBFD-002017
DRX
Meaning: Indicates the uplink traffic volume threshold for UEs to exit DRX in the cell that operates in TDD mode. This threshold is used in the DRX algorithm. It is expressed as a proportion of the transmission time intervals (TTIs) with uplink data transmission to the total TTIs. If the traffic volume at a UE is equal to or higher than this threshold, the eNodeB decides that the UE should retain its non-DRX state or exit DRX.
GUI Value Range: 1~2000
Unit: per mill
Actual Value Range: 1~2000
Default Value: 800
CellDrxPara
TddExitDrxThdDl
MOD CELLDRXPARA
LST CELLDRXPARA
TDLBFD-002017
DRX
Meaning: Indicates the downlink traffic volume threshold for UEs to exit DRX in the cell that operates in TDD mode. This threshold is used in the DRX algorithm. It is expressed as a proportion of the transmission time intervals (TTIs) with downlink data transmission to the total TTIs. If the traffic volume at a UE is equal to or higher than this threshold, the eNodeB decides that the UE should retain its non-DRX state or exit DRX.
GUI Value Range: 1~2000
Unit: per mill
Actual Value Range: 1~2000
Default Value: 800
DrxParaGroup
OnDurationTimer
ADD DRXPARAGROUP
MOD DRXPARAGROUP
LST DRXPARAGROUP
LBFD-002017 / TDLBFD-002017
DRX
Meaning: Indicates the length of the On Duration Timer. Because of the impact of CQI reporting intervals and SRS transmission intervals, the actual value of this parameter assigned to a UE may be greater than the configured value.
GUI Value Range: PSF1(1 PDCCH subframe), PSF2(2 PDCCH subframes), PSF3(3 PDCCH subframes), PSF4(4 PDCCH subframes), PSF5(5 PDCCH subframes), PSF6(6 PDCCH subframes), PSF8(8 PDCCH subframes), PSF10(10 PDCCH subframes), PSF20(20 PDCCH subframes), PSF30(30 PDCCH subframes), PSF40(40 PDCCH subframes), PSF50(50 PDCCH subframes), PSF60(60 PDCCH subframes), PSF80(80 PDCCH subframes), PSF100(100 PDCCH subframes), PSF200(200 PDCCH subframes)
Unit: subframe
Actual Value Range: PSF1, PSF2, PSF3, PSF4, PSF5, PSF6, PSF8, PSF10, PSF20, PSF30, PSF40, PSF50, PSF60, PSF80, PSF100, PSF200
Default Value: PSF2(2 PDCCH subframes)
StandardQci
Qci
LST STANDARDQCI
MOD STANDARDQCI
LOFD-001015 / TDLOFD-001015
LOFD-00101502 / TDLOFD-00101502
Enhanced Scheduling
Dynamic Scheduling
Meaning: Indicates the QoS Class Identifier (QCI) of an EPS bearer. Different QCIs represent different QoS specifications such as the packet delay budget, packet error loss rate, and resource type (whether the service is a GBR service or not). For details, see Table 6.1.7 in 3GPP TS 23.203.
GUI Value Range: QCI1(QCI 1), QCI2(QCI 2), QCI3(QCI 3), QCI4(QCI 4), QCI5(QCI 5), QCI6(QCI 6), QCI7(QCI 7), QCI8(QCI 8), QCI9(QCI 9)
Unit: None
Actual Value Range: QCI1, QCI2, QCI3, QCI4, QCI5, QCI6, QCI7, QCI8, QCI9
Default Value: None
StandardQci
RlcPdcpParaGroupId
MOD STANDARDQCI
LST STANDARDQCI
LBFD-002025 / TDLBFD-002025
LOFD-001015 / TDLOFD-001015
Basic Scheduling
Enhanced Scheduling
Meaning: Indicates the ID of an RLC/PDCP parameter group.
GUI Value Range: 0~39
Unit: None
Actual Value Range: 0~39
Default Value: 0
RlcPdcpParaGroup
RlcMode
ADD RLCPDCPPARAGROUP
MOD RLCPDCPPARAGROUP
LST RLCPDCPPARAGROUP
LBFD-002008 / TDLBFD-002008
Radio Bearer Management
Meaning: Indicates the RLC transmission mode. Only the AM and UM modes are available.
GUI Value Range: RlcMode_AM(Acknowledge Mode), RlcMode_UM(Un-acknowledge Mode)
Unit: None
Actual Value Range: RlcMode_AM, RlcMode_UM
Default Value: RlcMode_AM(Acknowledge Mode)
Cell
LocalCellId
ACT CELL
ADD CELL
ADD CELLBAND
BLK CELL
DEA CELL
DSP CELL
DSP CELLULCOMPCLUSTER
DSP PRIBBPADJUST
LST CELL
LST CELLBAND
MOD CELL
RMV CELL
RMV CELLBAND
STR CELLRFLOOPBACK
STR CELLSELFTEST
UBL CELL
None
None
Meaning: Indicates the local ID of the cell. It uniquely identifies a cell within a BS.
GUI Value Range: 0~17
Unit: None
Actual Value Range: 0~17
Default Value: None

16 Counters

There are no specific counters associated with this feature.

Budi Prasetyo

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